Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) Disease and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the agent that reasons acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), is a notably lately

observed virus. The virus turned into isolated in 1983 and related to AIDS in 1984. In 1985 a serologic check changed into developed

to become aware of HIV, and since then the seroprevalence of the disorder within the united states and the world over has been

below cautious scrutiny. the attention paid to HIV sickness and AIDS when you consider that its discovery has been exponential,

ensuing in sizable facts in HIV virology, its pathogenesis, and remedy. The price at which statistics flows inside the examine of HIV

is unsurpassed with the aid of any other disorder. due to the fact it's far an epidemic that is transmitted sexually, it's miles referred

to here. however, the subsequent dialogue represents only the briefest of introductions into this good sized area of observe. Any

critical student of HIV disorder or AIDS need first emerge as nicely acquainted with human immunology earlier than delving into the


HIV is found in each u . s . a . of the sector. It was predicted that with the aid of the give up of 1999, over 32.4 million adults were

inflamed with the virus, as well as 1.2 million children. inside the U.S., AIDS is the leading purpose of dying for sure businesses of

25 to forty four yr- olds. since HIV is unfold through sexual contact and publicity to blood products, characteristics of the AIDS

epidemic are at once associated with the exercise of risky behaviors, consisting of unprotected sex or injection drug use. in the

united states, HIV infection turned into first of all focused in the male gay population. but the percentage of people newly infected

who obtained the contamination thru heterosexual contact continues to boom significantly; outdoor of the U.S., heterosexual

contact is the essential mode of transmission. moms also bypass the virus directly to their kids all through pregnancy, start or

breastfeeding. till the blood deliver become screened beginning in 1985, a few folks who became inflamed did so thru blood

transfusions or thru medical remedies that contained blood merchandise.

HIV includes icosahedral virions with important envelope proteins, gp120 and gp41. The virus is classed as a retrovirus, in which

the enzyme opposite transcriptase is liable for the conversion of its RNA to DNA. as soon as interior its host, HIV binds to the CD4

molecule, which is a protein located in general on a subset of lymphocytes, as well as on macrophages and dendritic cells. The

lifestyles cycle of HIV within the host is complex, lengthy, and sundry, and is characterized by way of intervals of quiescence and

activity. The hallmark of HIV disorder is its capability to stay away from clearance from the immune device, as an alternative taking

on residence in lymphoid tissue and setting up a persistent, long time contamination wherein the host's immune device is slowly

destroyed. The median period of time between initial infection and medical illness is ten years.


Transmission of HIV takes place via direct entrance of the virus into the bloodstream thru inflamed blood or products made with

inflamed blood. this can arise through such unstable behaviors as sharing injection needles, injuries with sharp and infected

gadgets, maternal-fetal transmission thru the placenta or throughout delivery, or sexual sex in which there's some bleeding. Blood

transfusions also are a technique of transmission. due to the fact 1985, the U.S. blood deliver has been screened, and given that

then transfusion has been an exceptionally rare technique of HIV transmission. but, other countries round the arena can also lack the

resources to screen their blood substances.

HIV transmission also happens thru mucosal linings of the frame, inclusive of vaginal, rectal, urethral, oral and gastrointestinal

mucosa. physical fluids acknowledged to contain concentrations of HIV extraordinary enough to transmit the virus, in addition to

blood, encompass semen, vaginal fluids and breastmilk. As a end result, sexual pastime and breastfeeding are primary modes of

transmission of the virus. when the non-infected sexual companion engages in unprotected sexual pastime with an infected

accomplice his or her probabilities of obtaining the virus are accelerated if she or he already harbors an STD, given that any local

infection will possibly reason irritation to the urogenital mucosa.

As said earlier, the signs and signs of HIV disorder and AIDS are numerous and significant and will no longer be discussed right here.

Any character diagnosed with an STD, or who has engaged in unprotected sexual interest or different unstable behaviors, can also

determine to go through HIV trying out. If a person has engaged in volatile conduct with a person they know is HIV superb, they

have to searching for clinical help at once following the risky behavior. If a person has engaged in unstable conduct with one or

more humans in his or her past and wishes to receive an HIV check, they are able to go through serologic trying out. The HIV take a

look at is a test for antibodies to the virus, antibodies that can take weeks to months to expand in sufficient sufficient quantities to

be detectable on the HIV exams which are presently available. consequently, HIV exams reliably deliver statistics on a person's HIV

fame as of six months prior to the test, and not records at the man or woman's current HIV status. This six-month time frame is

known as the "window period."

As is widely known, there may be no cure for HIV sickness or AIDS; there may be handiest management of the signs and symptoms.

consequently, all efforts ought to be made in the direction of prevention of disease. Prevention of HIV ailment includes engaging in

"safer intercourse" (see Prevention phase in the creation), not sharing needles throughout injection drug use activities, and

adherence to OSHA (Occupational safety and health administration) tips whilst working with blood or physical fluids.