Social Picture in Pride and Prejudice
Pride and prejudice by Austen's is a detail portrayal of the social atmosphere of the late 18th and early 19th century England and it is principally concerned with all social aspects of English gentry. It is Austen's great masterpiece, a sharp and witty comedy of manners played out in her time, a world in which men held virtually all the power and women were required to negotiate mine fields of social status. Marriage was then considered as the way of a women's security and also it paved the way for a woman to gain property. Austen contains vivid and realistic pictures of the social life of her time -the conventions, the manners, and the mode of living of that time and which are depicted in the novel in a most graphic manner.
In the novel we see that money, marriage and the security of a woman are very interrelated. In pride and prejudice, we see that money is essential to begin a marriage. "It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife." By saying it is universally acknowledged', we get the impression that marriage is something wanted by all. It also implies that any rich man wants a wife, when actually it is a woman that wants a rich husband, the opposite of what Austen says.
Here in a conversation with Mr. Bennett, we see that Mrs. Bennett convinces her husband to wed one of their daughters to "A single man of large fortune; four or five thousand a year.'', namely, Mr. Bingley. Mrs. Bennett is especially interested in his income.
When MR. Collins proposes to Elizabeth, he presumes he will not be refused because he is richer. We see that he is one of the people who believe marriage is just about money. Another man wishing to marry Elizabeth is Colonel Fitzwilliam. He understands if one wishes to marry, one must be rich, and this saddens him because he cannot marry the girl he wants: "There are not many in my rank of life who can afford to marry without some attention to money." Elizabeth can't understand how many people marry where there were no feelings of attraction with having only simply desire for more money. Mrs. Gardiner said to Elizabeth: "affection" for Wickham would be "so very imprudent" because of his "want of fortune". Charlotte's marriage to Collins is a monetary trade. She marries Collins primarily because he will be able to provide her enough livelihoods and will be able to make her life easy.
In the pride and prejudice we find that marriage was thought as an acceptable path to his high status or their economic way according to the view of the society. Thus marriage was the main concern of the mother and also of the daughters of that time .
Here we see that Mrs. Bennet always thinks about their daughters' marriage. "The business of her life was to get her daughters married "and she thinks that could fetch her daughter's wealthy and high status husbands; so marriage becomes a straight and quick to change their situation. When Mrs. Bennet comes to know that a bachelor is coming to occupy Nether field Park, her first thought is whether that rich bachelor would choose one of her five daughters as his would be wife . She says to her husband "My dear Mr Bennet how can you be sotire some: You must know that I am thinking of his marrying one of them ". (1). ``If I can but see one of my daughters happily settled at Netherfield,'' said Mrs. Bennet to her husband, ``and all the others equally well married, I shall have nothing to wish for.'' Charlotte Lucas, whose pragmatic views on marrying are voiced several times in the novel: "Without thinking highly either of men or of matrimony, marriage had always been her object; it was the only honorable provision for well-educated young women of small fortune, and however uncertain of giving happiness, must be their pleasantest preservative from want."
This novel also portrays the pride of upper class society. Darcy, a wealthy bachelor alienated himself from the others at first because of his intense pride. His eventual love, Elizabeth, was disgusted at his behavior and formed a prejudice against him. Even after he fell in love he completely debased her family for his pride. At Maryton. he dances only with the Bingley's sisters who belong to his class. When Bingley's offers to dance with any girls he says -``I certainly shall not. You know how I detest it, unless I am particularly acquainted with my partner. At such an assembly as this, it would be insupportable. Your sisters are engaged, and there is not another woman in the room whom it would not be a punishment to me to stand up with.''- Again when Bingley says to dance with Elizabeth Bennet, Darcy comments - "She is intolerable but not handsome enough to tempt me ;and I am no more humor at present to give consequence to young ladies who are slighted by others man ".(3). Pride is represented also by his aunt Lady Catherine. When she was talking with Mrs. Charlotte and Elizabeth, she shows herself to be a woman who is acutely conscious of her social status over the other two women. She humiliated Elizabeth by saying -"her (Elizabeth's) taste is not equal to Anne's". She puts all posts of insolent questions to Elizabeth and she expresses her surprise that the Bennet girls never had a governess to look for them -"No governess! How was that possible? Five daughters brought up at home without a governess!".
Prejudice is another picture in the society. Elizabeth was disgusted at Darcy's behavior and formed a prejudice against him. Elizabeth concerns a dislike for Mr. Darcy when she overhears his remark that she is not beautiful enough to dance with him. Her prejudices were increased when Wick ham made a long take of his grievances against Mr. Darcy she believed every word which Mr.Wickham has said. Her dislike of Mr. Darcy now hardens into hatred due to a prejudice which Mr. Wick ham's account has created in her mind. Darcy's cold arrogance and snobbery prejudiced her from him from the beginning and it took Elizabeth a lot longer time to overcome her prejudice.
In the novel, Austen portrays the women's low status and the reasons of women's low status. But they in the novel didn't try to strive for their right; they thought little of their status. No right of inheritance, such is particularly the case of the Bennets,a family of five daughters whose father's estate is entailed to a distant relative because women have not the right possess his father's property. After Mr. Bennett's death, they will loose home, land, and income, everything else. Money played in determining a woman's daily life, marriage and destiny.
The women in Austen's age lived in a patriarchal society ,a world in which men held all the advantage. Women could not entail their fathers estate, which has a quite iniquitous affairs to the daughters in the Bennets, as their property was entailed to a distant male heir. And they felt angry about it -"I don't think it is the hardest thing in the world that your estate should be entailed away from your own children.'' Since the law of the then England said that the property of a family should be entailed to a male heir and since the social power of a society was exercised by the male members of the society, marrying to a wealthy man was the only solution for a woman to gain property and, of course, shelter and security. So, when Mrs.Bennet knows Elizabeth's refusal to Mr. Collins , she threats her �''If you go on refusing every marriage , you will never get a husband , and I am sure I don't know who is to maintain you when your father died ''-illustrates the point that women have to depend on the men through her lifetime.
Again in this connection is that assembles, balls and gossips were the order of the lady . The ladies are the upper middle class play in the in the hash ladies and gentlemen play cards or pass the time in held gossip. Listening news, collected news and the communicating news were the chief interest of the girls and ladies. Thus we see in the novel Mrs. Philips gathers news then it imparts to her nieces.
The Importance of Being Earnest
"I've now realised for the first time in my life the vital Importance of Being Earnest."
"My heart's subdued/ Even to the very quality of my lord./ I saw Othello's visage in his mind,/ And to his honors and his valiant parts/ Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate
All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players: they have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his time plays many parts, his acts being seven ages.
They flee from
They flee from me that sometime did me seek With naked foot, stalking in my chamber. I have seen them gentle, tame, and meek, That now are wild and do not remember That sometime they put themself in danger To take bread at my hand; and now they range, Busily seeking with a continual change. Thanked be fortune it hath been otherwise Twenty times better; but once in special, In thin array after a pleasant guise, When her loose gown from her shoulders did fall, And she me caught in her arms long and small; Therewithall sweetly did me kiss And softly said, “Dear heart, how like you this?” It was no dream: I lay broad waking. But all is turned thorough my gentleness Into a strange fashion of forsaking; And I have leave to go of her goodness, And she also, to use newfangleness. But since that I so kindly am served I would fain know what she hath deserved.
The Tragicall History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus, commonly referred to simply as Doctor Faustus, is a play by Christopher Marlowe, based on the Faust story, in which a man sells his soul to the devil for power and knowledge.
pride and prejudice
It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. However little known the feelings or views of such a man may be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this truth is so well fixed in the minds of the surrounding families, that he is considered the rightful property of some one or other of their daughters.
Poppies in October
Even the sun-clouds this morning cannot manage such skirts. Nor the woman in the ambulance Whose red heart blooms through her coat so astoundingly -- A gift, a love gift Utterly unasked for By a sky Palely and flamily Igniting its carbon monoxides, by eyes Dulled to a halt under bowlers. O my God, what am I That these late mouths should cry open In a forest of frost, in a dawn of cornflowers.
Monday, 10 December 2012
Friday, 7 December 2012
Difference Between Elizabeth Bennet and Jane Bennet
They are two sisters. Jane is the elder one and then is Elizabeth. However, from first, it is perhaps clear to us that Elizabeth is smarter and with stronger personality. On the other hand, Jane was an innocent and at times a na�ve young who trusts people very easily. Of course, what is interesting to me is that in Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen kept a character called Jane in the first place but then she did not make her the heroine of the novel. This is funny to me because if I write a novel then I would never keep a character with my name.
Jane is prettier while Elizabeth Bennet is smarter. Jane admires people very easily while her younger sister has a much more critical eye. Thus, if you had read the novel then you would perhaps agree with me that the two sisters are quite opposite. Well, somehow, I find that they have something in common.
Both of them are good young girls. They became like their father Mr. Bennet. It is clear that Mr. Bennet was a kind hearted and good man and he was very supportive to his daughters. Both Jane and Elizabeth has got the same attitude. They like each other and they are very supportive. They are adorable and any man would become lucky and perhaps happy if they get married to either of them. Of course, if you are a man then you have to understand the value of girls like these two sisters.
I think that this is thing that Jane Austen wanted to show us. Yes, the two sisters have opposite personality traits. Yet, they are adorable, good and lovely. They believe in goodness and kindness and try to act to their idea. Many men while looking for a wife do not know what qualities they should look into a woman. Perhaps, the message of Jane Austen is that first search goodness in a girl and then other things. Only then, a man can be lucky and happy in a marriage.
Jane Bennet was a very ordinary girl but she was a good girl and Mr. Bingley was surely lucky to become her husband. Of course, we have to assume that they lived happily ever after.
Tuesday, 4 December 2012
The theme of love and marriage in Jane Austen's Novel, 'Pride and Prejudice'.
One of the major themes of the novel, 'Pride and prejudice' is love and marriage. Besides the marriage of Mrs. and Mr. Bennet, four marriages take place in the novel, mostly emanating from the love between each other. Moreover, the main concern of the novel is courtship and love, particularly the coming close of the hero, Darcy, and the heroine, Elizabeth, by stages.
(i) The first marriage that attracts our attention is that of Mrs. Bennet and Mr. Bennet. Mr. Bennet love with Mrs. Bennet and married her. This happened before the start of the novel. But Mrs. Bennet was not a fit match for Mr. Bennet. She is a nervous, ridiculous lady but Mr. Bennet is a conscious and sensible man. So they are pole apart in their thoughts and temperaments. Thus, this marriage is the worst example of its kind in the novel.
(ii) The second example of marriage in the novel is that of Charlotte Lucas and Mr. Collins. Mr. Collin is an affluent but stupid clergyman. He first proposes to Elizabeth but she rejects him. Then he proposes to Charlotte Lucas and she accepts his proposal because she wants social and economic security. So, this is a marriage of convenience, not a marriage of love.
(iii) The third example of marriage in the novel is that of Lydia and Wickham. Wickham is a philanderer and a cheat. He catches Lydia in his net and she falls in love with him. Not only that, she elopes away with him. Lydia�s action is bound to bring disgrace to the family. It is Darcy who bribes Wickham and makes him marry Lydia and thus save the family of Mr. Bennet from disgrace.
(iv) The fourth example of marriage is that of Jane and Bingley. They truly love each other. Bingley is a well to do young man. He marries Jane without dowry. This is an example of a successful marriage.
(V) The fifth and final example of marriage is that of Elizabeth and Darcy. It is an example of an ideal marriage based on true understanding and cross examinations as their love develops slowly, steadily and after careful observation of each other. Before marriage, they have encountered deep differences and critical confrontations resulting from the preoccupation of the pride by Darcy and obsession of the prejudice by Elizabeth. They get married only after Darcy has given up his pride and Elizabeth has given up her prejudice. The two try to understand each other and learn that they will be able to lead a life of social and economic security. Theirs is an example of an ideal love.
Monday, 19 November 2012
Wordsworth's Views on Imagination and Fancy
In making the poet's imagination a creative power, Wordsworth goes counter to the 'associationist' theories of David Hartley who had considerable influences on the poet. Hartley and other associationist psychologist thought that the human mind receives impressions from the external words, which are therein associated together to form images. In this way, the mind merely reflects the external world. But according to Wordsworth the mind does not merely reflect passively, it actively creates. At least, it is half the creator. Imagination is the active, creative faculty of the mind. As Florence Marsh points out, for Wordsworth imagination is a mental power which alters the external world creatively.
"It is a word of higher import, denoting operations of the human mind upon those objects and processes of creation or composition, governed by certain fixed laws."
It is through imagination that the poet realizes his kinship with the eternal. Imagination works upon the raw material of sense impressions to illustrate the working of external truths. It makes the poet perceive the essential unity of "man, God and Nature" while "the meddling intellect" of the scientist multiplies diversities.
Again, he tells that the poet is a man who thinks long and deeply, and so he can treat things which are absent as if they were present. In other words, the poet contemplates in tranquility the emotions which he had experienced in the past and through imagination can visualize the objects which gave rise to those emotions initially. Imagination is the mind's eye through which the poet sees into the 'heart of things' as well as into the past, the remote, and the unknown. It is imagination which enables the poet to render emotional experience, which he has not personally experienced, as if, they were personally felt emotions.
The power of imagination enables the poet to universalize the particular and the personal, and arrives at universal truths. Henry Crabbe Robinson describes the process in the following words:
"The poet first conceives the essential nature of his object, and then strips it of all casualties and accidental individual dress, and in this he is a philosopher; … he re-clothes his idea in an individual dress which expresses the essential quality and has also the spirit and life of a sensual object. And this transmutes the philosophic into a poetic exhibition."
Stressing the importance which Wordsworth attached to the role of imagination in the process of poetic creation, C M. Bowra writes:
"For him, the imagination was the most important gift that a poet can have, and his arrangement of his own poems shows what he meant by it."
The section which he calls, 'Poems of the Imagination', contains poems in which he united creative power and a special visionary insight. He agreed with Coleridge that this activity resembles that of God. It is the divine capacity of the child who fashions his own little world:
For feeling has to him imparted power
That through the growing faculties of sense
Doth like an agent of the one great Mind
Create, creator and receiver both,
Working but in alliance with the works
Which it beholds.
The poet keeps this faculty in his maturity, and through it he is what he is. But Wordsworth was full aware that mere creation is not enough, that it must be accompanied by a special insight. So he explains that the imagination,
Is but another name for absolute power
And clearest insight, amplitude of mind,
And Reason in her most exalted mood.
"Wordsworth did to go so far as the other Romantics in relegating reason to an inferior position. He preferred to give a new dignity to the word and to insist that inspired insight is itself rational."
It should be noticed that here Wordsworth calls imagination, "reason in her most exalted mood". It is a higher reason than mere reason. It is that faculty which transforms sense perceptions and makes the poet conscious of human immortality. It makes him have visions of the divine.
Wordsworth deals with imagination at much greater length in his Preface to the 1815 edition of the Lyrical Ballads. There he draws a distinction between Fancy and Imagination. Wordsworth's distinction between Fancy and Imagination is not so subtle and penetrating as that of Coleridge. According to Wordsworth, both Imagination and Fancy, "evoke and combine, aggregate and associate". But the material which they evoke and combine is different, and their purpose in evoking and combining is different. They differ not in their natures but in their purpose, and in the material on which they work. The material on which Fancy works is not so susceptible to change or so pliant as the material on which imagination works. Fancy makes things exact and definite, while Imagination leaves everything vague and indefinite
Rene Wellek's comment in this respect is illuminating and interesting:
"Both Wordsworth and Coleridge make the distinction between Fancy, a faculty which, handles, 'fixities and definites, and Imagination, a faculty which deals with the 'plastic, the pliant and the indefinite'. The only important difference between Wordsworth and Coleridge is that Wordsworth does not clearly see Coleridge's distinction between imagination as a 'holistic' and fancy as an 'associative' power and does not draw the sharp distinction between transcendentalism and associationism which Coleridge wanted to establish."
Friday, 16 November 2012
William Wordsworth's as a Romantic poet
Imagination: Where the eighteenth century poets used to put emphasis much on ‘wit’, the romantic poets used to put emphasis on ‘imagination’. Wordsworth uses imagination so that the common things could be made to look strange and beautiful through the play of imagination. In his famous “Intimation Ode", it seems to his as to the child "the earth, and every common sight" seemed "apparelled in celestial light". Here he says,
There was a time when meadow, grove and stream,
The earth and every common sight,
To me did seem
Apparelled in celestial light"
Moreover, in this poem, we find a sequence of picture through his use of imagery. Through his imagination he says,
The Rainbow come and goes,
And lovely is the Rose,
The Moon doth with delight
Look round her when the heavens are bare"
Similarly, in the poem, “Tintern Abbey”, the poet sees the river, the stream, steep and lofty cliffs through his imaginative eyes. He was enthusiastically charmed at the joyful sound of the rolling river. Here he says,
Do I behold those steep and lofty cliffs
That on a wild secluded scene impress
Thoughts of more deep seclusion and connect
The landscape with quiet of the sky".
In this poem, the poet seems that the nature has a healing power. Even the recollection of nature soothes the poet's troubled heart. The poet can feel the existance of nature through imagination even when he is away from her. He says,
In lonely rooms and ‘mid the din
Of towns and cities, I have owed to them
In hours of weariness, sensation sweet".
Nature: Wordsworth is especially regarded as a poet of nature. In most of the poems of Wordsworth nature is constructed as both a healing entity and a teacher or moral guardian. Nature is considered in his poems as a living personality. He is a true worshiper of nature: nature's devotee or high priest. The critic Cazamian says, "to Wordsworth, nature appears is a formative influence superior to any other, the educator of senses or mind alike, the shower in our hearts of the deep laden seeds of our feelings and beliefs". He dwells with great satisfaction, on the prospects of spending his time in groves and valleys and on the banks of streams that will lull him to rest with their soft murmur.
For Wordsworth, nature is a healer and he ascribes healing properties to Nature in “Tintern Abbey” . This is a fairly obvious conclusion drawn from his reference to "tranquil restoration" that his memory of the Wye offered him “in lonely rooms and mid the din/Of towns and cities"
It is also evident in his admonition to Dorothy that she let her
"Memory be as a dwelling-place
For all sweet sounds and harmonies; oh !then
If solitude, or fear, or pain, or grief.
Should be thy portion, with what healing thoughts
Of tender joy wilt thou remember me,
And these my exhortations!”
Wordsworth says nature "never did betray the heart that loved her".
Subjectivity: Subjectivity is the key note of Romantic poetry. He expresses his personal thoughts, feelings through his poems. In “Ode: Intimation of Immortality” the poet expresses his own/personal feelings. Here he says that he can't see the celestial light anymore which he used to see in his childhood. He says,
It is not now as it hath been of yore;-
Turn wheresoe'er I may,
By might or day,
The things which I have seen I now can see on more."
Nature becomes all in all to the poet. The sounding cataract haunted him like a passion. Nature was his beloved. He loved only the sensuous beauty of nature. He has also a philosophy of nature.
Pantheism and mysticism: Pantheism and mysticism are almost interrelated factors in the Nature poetry of the Romantic period. Wordsworth conceives of a spiritual power running through all natural objects- the " presence that disturbs me with the low of elevated thoughts" whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, the rolling ocean. the living air, the blue sky, and the mind of man (“Tintern Abbey”)
Humanism: The romantic poets had sincere love for man or rather the spirit of man. Wordsworth had a superabundant enthusiasm for humanity. He was deeply interested in the simple village folk and the peasant who live in contact with nature. Wordsworth showed admiration for the ideals that inspired the French Revolution. Emphasis in individual freedom is another semantic characteristic. Wordsworth laments for the loss of power, freedom and virtue of human soul.
Lyricism: Wordsworth is famous for simple fiction, bereft of artificialities and falsity of emotion. His "Lyrical Ballads" signifies his contention that poetry is the "history or science of feelings"
In the “Ode: Intimation of Immortality”, we see his lyricism. He writes,
Earth fills her lap with pleasures of her own:
Yearnings she hath in her own natural kind,
And, even, with something of a Mother's mind,
And, on unworthy aim,
The homely Nurse doth all she can
To make her Foster-child, her Innate Man,
Forget the glories he hath known,
And that imperial palace whence he came.
In the concluding part, it can be said that Wordsworth was a protagonist in the Romantic Movement which was at once a revolt and a revival. He shows the positive aspects of Romanticism with its emphasis on imagination, feeling, emotion, human dignity and significance of Nature.
Thursday, 15 November 2012
William Wordsworth As a Critic.
Thursday, 8 November 2012
Giving an allusion to Donne's originality as the poet of love, Grierson makes the following observation:
"His genius temperament and learning gave a certain qualities to his love poems … which arrest our attention immediately. His love poems, for instance, do have a power which is at once realistic and distracting."
Donne's greatness as a love-poet arises from the fact that this poetry covers a wider range of emotions than that of any previous poet. His poetry is not bookish but is rooted in his personal experiences. Is love experience were wide and varied and so is the emotional range of his love-poetry. He had love affairs with a number of women. Some of them were lasting and permanent, other were only of a short duration.
Donne is quite original in presenting the love situations and moods.
The "experience of love" must produce a "sense of connection" in both the lovers. This "sense of connection" must be based on equal urge and longing on both the sides.
"The room of love" must be shared equally by the two partners.
Donne magnifies the ideal of "Sense of connection" into the physical fulfillment of love.
"My face in thine eyes thine in mime appears"
This aspect of love helps him in the virtual analysis of the experience of love. Donne was a shrewd observer who had first hand knowledge of "love and related affairs. That is why in almost all his poems, he has a deep insight.
His love as expressed in his poetry was based not on conventions but on his own experiences. He experienced all phase of love – platonic, sensuous, serene, cynical, conjugal, illicit, lusty, picturesque and sensual. He could also be grotesque blending thought with passion.
Another peculiar quality of Donne's love lyrics is its "metaphysical strain". His poems are sensuous and fantastic. Donne's metaphysical strain made his reader confused his sincerity.
Donne's genius temperament and learning gave to his love poems power and fascination. There is a depth and rang of feeling unknown to the majority of Elizabethan poets. Donne's poetry is startlingly unconventional even when he dallies, half ironically, with the hyperboles of petrarch.
Donne is realistic not an idealistic. He knows the weakness of Flesh, the pleasure of sex, the joy of secret meeting. However he tries to establish a relationship between the body and the soul. Donne is very realistic poet.
Grierson distinguished three distinct strains in it. First there is the cynical strain. Secondly, there is the strain f conjugal love to be noticed in poems like "valediction: forbidding mourning". Thirdly, there is platonic strain. The platonic strain is to b found in poems like "Twicknam Garden", "The Funeral", "The Blossoms", and "The Primroses". These poems were probably addressed to the high-born lady friends. Towards them he adopts the helpless pose of flirtations and in high platonic vein boasts that:
Different of sex no more we know
Than our Guardian Angles doe
In between the cynical realistic strain and the highest spiritual strain, there are a number of poems which show an endless variety of mood and tone. Thus thee are poems in which the tone is harsh, others which are coarse and brutal, still other in which he holds out a making threat to his faithless mistress and still others in which he is in a reflective mood. More often that not, a number of strains and moods are mixed up in the same poem. This makes Donne as a love poet singularly, original, unconventional and realistic.
Whatever may be the tone or mood of a particular poem, it is always an expression of some personal experience and is, therefore, presented with remarkable force, sincerity and seriousness. Each poem deals with a love situation which is intellectually analyzed with the skill of an experienced lawyer.
Hence the difficult nature of his poetry and the charge of obscurity have been brought against him. The difficulty of the readers is further increased by the extreme condensation and destiny of Donne's poetry.
The fantastic nature of the metaphysical conceits and poetry would become clear even we examine a few examples. In "Valediction: Forbidden Mourning" true lovers now parted are likened to the legs of a compass. The image is elaborated at length. The lovers are spiritually one, just as the head of the compass is one even when the legs are apart. One leg remains fixed and the other moves round it. The lover cannot forget the beloved even when separated from her. The two loves meet together in the end just as the two legs of the compass are together again, as soon as circle has been drawn.
At other times, he uses equally extravagated hyperboles. For example, he mistakes his beloved to an angel, for to imagine her less than an angle would be profanity.
In Donne's poetry, there is always an "intellectual analysis" of emotion. Like a clever lawyer, Donne gives arguments after arguments in support of his points of view. Thus in "Valediction: Forbidden Mourning" he proves that true lovers need not mourn at the time of parting. In "Canonization" he establishes that lovers are saints of love and in "The Blossome" he argues against the petrarchan love tradition. In all this Donne is a realistic love poet.
John Donne-- A metaphysical poet
Dryden once remarked:
"Donne affects metaphysics not only in his satires but in amorous verses, too, where nature only should reign."
Though Donne was influenced by the sixteenth and the seventeenth century poets, yet he did not tread on the beaten track. His concept of poetry was unconventional. In his poetry, intellect takes the form, primarily, of wit by which heterogeneous ideas are yoked together by violence. The seventeenth century poets labeled his poetry as 'strong line poetry', mainly, on account of his concise expression and his deliberate toughness. In his life, he was never called a metaphysical poet. After his death, his poetry was re-evaluated and some other important features were found in it, which won the name of a metaphysical poet for Donne.
Grierson's defines metaphysical poetry as:
"Poetry inspired by a philosophical concept of the universe and the role assigned to human spirit in the great drama of existence".
This definition is based on the metaphysical poetry of Dante, Goethe and Yeats. So "metaphysical" is applicable to poetry who is highly philosophical or which touches philosophy.
Combination of passion and thought characterizes his work. His use of conceit is often witty and sometimes fantastic. His hyperboles are outrageous and his paradoxes astonishing. He mixes fact and fancy in a manner which astounds us. He fills his poems with learned and often obscure illusions besides, some of his poems are metaphysical in literal sense, they are philosophical and reflective, and they deal with concerns of the spirit or soul.
Conceit is an ingredient which gives a special character to Donne's metaphysical poetry. Some of his conceits are far-fetched, bewildering and intriguing. He welds diverse passions into something harmonious.
"When thou weep'st, unkindly kinde,
My lifes blood doth decay."
"When a teare falls, that thou falst which it bore,"
"Here lies a she-sun and a he-moon there"
"All women shall adore us, and some men."
His approach is based on logical reasoning and arguments. He provides intellectual parallels to his emotional experiences. His modus operandi was "to move from the contemplation of fact to a deduction from it and, thence, to a conclusion". He contemplates fidelity in a woman but, in reality, draws it impossible of find a faithful woman.
Lives a woman true, and faire."
He does not employ emotionally exciting rhythm. His poetry goes on lower ebb. Even his love poems do not excite emotions in us. Even in a "Song" while separating, he is logical that he is not parting for weariness of his beloved.
"But since that I
Must dye at last, 'tis best,
To use my selfe in jest
Thus by fain'd deaths to dye;"
His speculations and doctrines are beyond common human experience. His ideas are beyond the understanding of a layman and are a blend of intellect and emotions making his approach dialectical and scholastic. He asks his beloved in "The Message" to keep his eyes and heart because they might have learnt certain ills from her, but then, he asks her to give them back so that he may laugh at her and see her dying when some other proves as false to her as she has proved to the poet.
Donne was a self-conscious artist, therefore, had a desire to show off his learning. In his love poetry, he gives illustrations from the remote past. In his divine poems, he gives biblical references like the Crucification.
"Or snorted we in the seaven sleepers den?"
"Get with child a mandrake roote."
"But that Christ on this Crosse, did rise and fall."
Metaphysical poetry is highly concentrated and so is Donne's poetry. In "The Good Morrow", he says
"For love, all love of other sights controules."
"For, not in nothing, nor in things
Extreme, and scatt'ring bright, can love inhere."
"Hee that hath all can have no more."
His poetry is full of arguments, persuasion, shock and surprise. Instead of conventional romantic words, he used scientific and mathematical words to introduce roughness in his poetry; e.g. he used the words 'stife twin compasses', 'cosmographers', 'trepidation of the spheres' etc.
His style is highly fantastic, curt and he uses rough words. He rejects the conventional style which was romantic, soft and diffused.
Paradoxical statements are also found in his poems. In "The Indifferent" Donne describes constancy in men as vice and ask them:
"Will no other vice content you?"
In "The Legacy" the lover becomes his own 'executor and legacy'. In "Love's Growth" the poet's love seems to have increased in spring, but now it cannot increase because it was already infinite, and yet it has increased:
"No winter shall abate the sring's increase."
He deals with the problem of body and soul in "The Anniversarie" of the individual and the universe in "The Sunne Rising" and of deprivation and actuality in "A Noctrunall". In his divine poems he talks about the Crucification, ransom, sects / schism, religion, etc.
Donne is a coterie poet. He rejects the Patrarchan tradition of poetry, adopted by the Elizabethans. The Elizabethan poetry was the product off emotions. He rejected platonic idealism, elaborate description and ornamentation. He was precise and concentrated in poetry while the Elizabethan are copious and plentiful in words.
Seventeenth century had four major prerequisites; colloquial in diction, personal in tone, logical in structure and undecorative and untraditional imagination, which were also present in Donne.
To conclude, he is more a seventeenth century poet than a metaphysical poet. There are some features in his poetry which differentiate him e.g. he is a monarch of with and more colloquial than any other seventeenth century poet. If other seventeenth century poet bring together emotions and intellect, he defines emotional experience with intellectual parallels etc. Still he writes in the tradition of the seventeenth century poets.
Monday, 5 November 2012
Saturday, 3 November 2012
sylyia plath was born in Jamaica plain, Massachusetts, the older child of Otto and Aurelia Schoeber Plath.
Har father was Professor of German and entomology (a spcialist on bees) at Boston University.
Her Mother was a high school teacher , was his student.Both parents valued learning.
In 1940 Otto died of Complications from surgery after a leg amputation, and Aurelia's parents became part of the household to care for the cildren when she returned to teaching.
Sylvia's interests in writing and art continued through her public school years in Wellesley, Massachussetts, and at Smith College, Where she attended on scholarships.
Monday, 22 October 2012
Desdemona character analysis
Desdemona from Othello embodies what most would believe to be the perfect woman. She is loyal and trusting, innocent and pure, and her inner beauty is only matched by her outer experience. Her somewhat naïve personality however, leaves her exposed to the more worldly individuals, those who have learned how to take advantage of others through experience. What initially attracts many to Desdemona proves to be her downfall, and her inexperience with the evils of the world leads to her demise. One's innocence attracts all types, yet this attraction may become lethal.
Desdemona does not know how to be unloving to one in need. When Cassio does not know how to amend his friendship with Othello, she willingly lends a helping hand. Her vow to “perform it to the last article” is fulfilled when her death is caused by her loyalty to this friendship. Desdemona is also completely blinded by her love for Othello. “Unkindness may do much, And his unkindness may defeat my life, But never taint my love.” This quote could be said to summarize all of the character of Desdemona. Her own words foreshadow her death, yet her love for her husband keeps her from seeing the truth of this statement. Desdemona does not know how not to love even those who, whether intentionally or unintentionally, mean her harm.
The loyalty Desdemona feels towards all she meets keeps her from seeing their true colors. Her trust in the Moor, that he was born without jealousy, keeps her from noticing the changes in his everyday demeanor. Her loyalty to her husband also displays her innocence of the world. When Desdemona asks Emilia if there are really women who would cheat on their husbands, she puts her lack of worldly experience on display for all to see. Her ignorance of how the world works, and her supposedly trusting husband's belief in false statements, eventually leads her to the ultimate betrayal.
The attributes of one such as Desdemona appear to be the perfect qualities that a woman can possess. Yet it is these same seemingly wonderful qualities that turn against their host, blinding them to the realities of society. Her trust in her husband does not allow her to see the beast he has become. Her loyalty to her friends blurs how the relationship may be seen from outside sources. Overall, this “perfect” Desdemona leads herself to her death, yet has no knowledge of doing so while on her life's journey.
Female Characters in "The Importance of Being Earnest"
- Intent on marrying a man named Ernest.
- Eager to embrace one another as sisters.
- Quick to become rivals pitted against each other.
First line: I am always smart!
Second line: I intend to develop in many directions.Sixth line: In fact, I am never wrong.
GWENDOLEN: Cecily Cardew? What a very sweet name! Something tells me that we are going to be great friends. I like you already more than I can say. My first impressions of people are never wrong.
GWENDOLEN: From the moment I saw you I distrusted you. I felt that you were false and deceitful. I am never deceived in such matters. My first impressions of people are invariably right.
The Importance of Being Earnest THEMES
Saturday, 20 October 2012
Othello's Relationship with Iago
"He (in good time) must his [Othello's] Lieutenant be,At a later time he comes to see some connection between the two incidents, and believes that Cassio got the appointment because of an old friendship with Desdemona, and probably because he carried messages between Othello and Desdemona during their courtship.
And I (bless the mark) his Moorship's Ancient."
(I. i. 34-5.)
And nothing can, or shall content my soulThe two offences with which lago charges Othello are both matters of honor, and mark phases of Othello's inability to sustain the new and exalted life of his adopted country. He was quite equal to the task of maintaining his military, or semi-barbaric, relations to the state, and rose to the highest command in Venice. But in matters of personal honor he is not above reproach, and in his obtuseness offends lago in two ways. Some critics think it is because of such offences as that with Emilia that Othello is unable to maintain an undisturbed married relationship with his refined and delicate Venetian bride. But his guilt is left very doubtful by the play, and therefore this conclusion is unwarranted. It is sufficient to observe, however, that the clear-headed lago perceives this to be his most vulnerable point, and by enlisting the dupe Roderigo, attacks him where he is weakest.
Till I am even'd with him, wife, for wife.
Or failing so, yet that I put the Moor
At least into a jealousy so strong
That judgment cannot cure.
(II. i. 331-5.)